Types of Educational tests

There are many different types of testing that can be done during an evaluations.  They can be done by our school system or independently:

There are about a dozen different intelligence test (WISC being the most common used) .

Achievement test for: reading, spelling, written language, and arithmetic/mathematics.

These are assessments listed on this page, click on the type of test or the test acronym, and it will take you to that place on the page.
Educational Diagnose
TERA - young child basic abilities

Five areas of Reading:
Phonemic Awareness (PA)
(PA may also be tested in a Speech and Language evaluation)
CELF PA subtest
2. Phonics (Decoding)
WRMT - word attack & identification
WIST - decoding, and spelling (encoding)
3. Fluency
DIBELS - phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, and fluency
RFI - fluency
GORT - fluency & comprehension
TOWRE - accuracy, fluency, sight words
4. Vocabulary
(Vocabulary may also be tested in a Speech and Language evaluation)
TOLD - spoken language,  vocabulary.
PPVT-  receptive vocabulary, verbal ability
EVT - expressive vocabulary
5. Comprehension strategies
Gates-MacGinitie - reading comprehension,  & vocabulary
GRADE - reading comprehension
GDRT -  identification, phonetic, vocabulary, & reading meaning
GORT-D - decode, comprehension
GSRT- silent reading comprehension
TORC- silent reading comprehension



Speech and Language :
      Oral Language:
CELF - oral language
CASL - oral language
TLC- oral language
OWLS -  written and oral
TNL - oral narrative

Problem solving, drawing inferences:
TOPS-E - problem solving
TOPS-A - problem solving

TOLD - spoken language,  vocabulary.
PPVT-  receptive vocabulary, verbal ability
EVT - expressive vocabulary

Auditory processing:
TAPS - auditory processing

Arizona - articul ation
GFTA - Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation

Social Pragmatics:

CELF-Pragmatics subtest 
Also check under Social skills, below in it's own section.

Phonological Awareness (PA):
(To test a child's readiness for reading, see Phonological Awareness Tests )

Social Skills:

Also check under Social Pragmatics, listed under Speech and Language.


Classroom Kindergarten Skills checklist 28  or by Tampa Reads

Classroom reading checks:

Stanford Diagnostic
DIBELS - phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, and fluency

Reading Programs levels & ratings

Occupational Therapy :
MAP - developmental delays
PDMS - Peabody
TVPS - Gardner Test of Visual Perceptual
DTVP - Developmental Test of Visual Perception–Adolescent and Adult
MVPT- Motor Free Visual Perceptual
TVMS - Test of Visual Motor Skills
PVMIA - Preschool
Berry-VMI -
Visual Motor Integration
BOT- Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency
WOLD Sentence Copying Test
THS-Test of Handwriting skills

Sensory Profile

Executive Functioning (EF):


TGMD-Test of Gross Motor Development
BOT- Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

Transition Assessments (TA):

Intelligence Tests
Achievement Tests
Aptitude Tests
Adaptive Behavior & Independent Living
Interest Inventories
Personality or Preference Tests
Career Development Measures
On the Job or Training Evaluations
Self-Determination Assessments

Related resources:
Describe the type of scores
Which Educational Test to use?
Article and book:
An Article: Tests & Measurements
Recommend Book
A tool to graph your test scores
Charts, diagrams and graphs:
Detailed Tests Scores chart
Full Scale IQ Bell Curve
Detailed Bell Curve (8 type of scores: Standard Deviations (SD), percentiles (%tiles), Z-scores, T-scores, Scaled Scores (ScS), Standard Scores (SS), Staines, etc. )
Less Detailed Bell Curve (3 type of scores: Standard Deviations (SD), Standard Scores (SS), and percentiles (%tiles)

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Comprehensive Achievement Assessment of Perceptual Abilities:

The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery
Cognitive ability, academic achievement, and scholastic interest.  provides a co-normed set of tests for measuring cognitive abilities and academic achievement.

Ages:  2.0+, Grades: K.0 - 16.9

Administration time:
Varies; approximately 5 minutes per subtest.

SS; GE; AE; PR; RMI; instructional ranges; developmental level bands. Yields individual test scores plus cluster scores.

A diagnostic tools used by evaluators to determine whether a student has learning disabilities.  It is important that both the cognitive and achievement portions of the Woodcock-Johnson test be administered.  Often only the achievement portion is given which points out the student's academic weaknesses. The cognitive test needs to be given to provide a more complete picture of the student's academic functioning and strengths. The combination of both the cognitive and achievement test results gives valuable information concerning the strengths and weaknesses of the student, the student's learning style, the possible presence of visual perceptual difficulties, and the student's aptitude in academic areas.  A student with learning disabilities often scores high in oral language and verbal ability. ( From The Woodcock-Johnson Test: Maximizing Benefits for Students with Learning Disabilities , by Larry Falxa.  Note: The WISC can be used for the   cognitive test instead of the WJ cognitive section.)

The WJ is divided into two sections, Cognitive and Achievement:

The WJ-R Cognitive part has 7 subtest and the supplement battery of the cognitive test are made up of 14 subtest (total 21).  The achievement battery 9 subtest and the supplement battery of the achievement battery test are made up of 5 subtest (total 14 subtest).  Giving us a total of 35 subtests in all.

The WJ-III Has 42 subtests, the Cognitive part has 20 subtests.  The achievement battery 22 subtest.   

For a list of the WJ-R, subtests and clusters, click here.
For a list of the WJ-III, subtest and clusters, click here.

Educators have often reported that when they give WJ to prove what they all ready know, and have found that test does not show the student areas of weakness.  It is important to have your child tested in each area of weakness.  Using standardize tests in their area of weakness (i.e. reading test, spelling, math test).   Publisher: Riverside Publishing Company website

See the list of the different diagnostic tests that are available.

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Achievement Assessment:

The Kaufmann Educational Achievement Tests (KTEA)

Test measure:
Achievement assessment of core subject areas.

Ages:  6-11, Grades: 1-12

Administration time:
Brief Form 20-30 minutes;
Comprehensive Form (Grades 1-3) 30-60 minutes, (Grades 4-12) 50-75 minutes.

Test purpose:
This test is intended to screen students on global achievement skills to determine the need for follow-up testing and evaluation.

Age and grade-based standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15), grade equivalents, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents (NCEs), and stanine.   Provides error analysis for each subtest to help identify a student's strengths and weaknesses.   Provides accurate score comparisons for reading decoding, reading comprehension, and math.


To see actual example of Kaufmann report, click here 
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Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)

Test measure:
Achievement assessment of core subject areas.

Ages: 4 - 50 WIAT-III,  Ages: 5 - 19 WIAT-II

Administration time:
30 - 75 minutes

Test purpose:
The educational achievement of the children and adolescents, verison 3 expanded to adults.

Age and grade-based standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15), composite score, grade equivalents, percentile ranks and stanines.

The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test - Second Edition (WIAT-II), published in 2001, revises the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT), published in 1992, by The Psychological Corporation.  WIAT-III, published in 2009 the lastest verison. 

9 Subtests WIAT-II Descriptions:

(WIAT-II was Published by Harcourt Assessment, now Pearson )
WIAT-II Article by Dumont/Willis, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Nova Southeastern University WIAT-II test description

Updates to the WIAT-III:

16 Subtests WIAT-III Descriptions:

1.   Listening Comprehension - The student listens to vocabulary words and points to a picture that illustrates each word, and then listens to passages and answers questions about each one.
2.   Oral Expression  - The student is shown pictures and is asked to name the concept shown in each picture. Then the student says words from a given category and repeats sentences.
3.   Early Reading Skills - Require the student to: Identify letters and letter sounds, Identify and produce rhyming words Segment words – identifying beginning and ending sounds Blend sounds Identify consonant blends, Do a small amount of basic sight word recognition.
4.   Word Reading - The student reads aloud a list of increasingly difficult words.
5.   Pseudoword Decoding - The student reads aloud a list of increasingly difficult nonsense words.
6.   Oral Reading Fluency The student reads passages aloud, and then orally responds to comprehension questions.
7.   Reading Comprehension - The student reads passages aloud or silently under un-timed conditions, and then answers open-ended questions about each one.
8.   Alphabet Writing Fluency - Student writes down letters of the alphabet as fast as he or she can.
9.   Spelling - The student writes single words that are dictated within the context of a sentence.
10. Sentence Composition - The student combines the information from two or three sentences into single sentences that mean the same thing, and then the student writes meaningful sentences that use specific words.
11. Essay Composition - The student writes an essay within a 10-minute time limit.
12. Math Problem Solving Depending upon the grade and ability level of the student, the student solves un-timed math problems related to basic skills (counting, identifying shapes, etc.), everyday applications (time, money, word problems, etc.), geometry, and algebra.
13. Numerical Operations Depending upon the grade and ability level of the student, the student solves un-timed written math problems in the following domains: basic skills, basic operations with integers, geometry, algebra, and calculus.
14. Math Fluency- Addition The student solves written addition problems within a 60-second time limit.
15. Math Fluency-Subtraction The student solves written subtraction problems within a 60-second time limit.
16. Math Fluency-Multiplication The student solves written multiplication problems within a 60-second time limit.

8 composite scores (average subtest scores together): Total Achievement, Oral Language, Total Reading, Basic Reading, Reading Comprehension and Fluency, Written Expression, Mathematics and Math Fluency.

Publisher: Pearson
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    Educational Diagnostic tests


    Test of Early Reading Ability (TERA)
    Measures of the reading ability of young children age 3 years, 6 months - 8 years, 6 months (does not test the child's readiness for reading).  Assess their mastery of early developing reading skills.  Three subtests: Alphabet - Knowledge of alphabet and uses, Conventions - Book orientation and format, and Meaning - Construction of meaning from print.  Testing time 30 minutes. (Recommend to also test the child Phonological Awareness ).  Publisher: Stoelting

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Phonological Awareness    34

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)
Test measure: Measures student's awareness of the individual sounds in words.

Assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming.  The CTOPP has 4 principal uses:

(1) to identify individuals who are significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities, (2) to determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological processes, (3) to document an individual's progress in phonological processing as a consequence of special intervention programs, and (4) to serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating phonological processing.

kindergarten through college

The assessment has two versions:

The first version, developed for individuals ages 5 and 6 (primarily kindergartens and first graders)

The second version, for individuals ages 7 through 24 (persons in second grade through college)

Administration time:
30 minutes 

Percentiles, standard scores, and age and grade equivalents are provided.  Subtest standard scores (SS) have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The Phonological Awareness, Phonological Memory, and Rapid Naming quotients have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative standing of individuals’ scores.

There are two version of the test.  The first version, developed for children ages 5 and 6, contains seven core subtests and one supplemental test.  The Subtests: Elision (substation and deletion), Rapid Color Naming, Rapid Object Naming, Blending Words, Sound Matching, Non-word Repetition and Memory for Digits.

The second version, for individuals ages 7 through 24, contains six core subtests and eight supplemental tests.  The subtests for Phonological Awareness: Elision (substation & deletion), and Blending Words.  For Phonological Memory: Memory for Digits and Non-word Repetition.  For the Rapid Naming: Rapid Digit Naming, Rapid Letter Naming, Rapid Color Naming, and Rapid Object Name.  The other subtestsversionending Non-words, Phoneme Reversal, Segmenting Words, and Segmenting Non-words.  These supplemental tests are provided to allow the examiner to more carefully assess specific phonological strengths and weaknesses.

Authors: Richard Wagner, Joseph Torgesen, and Carol Rashotte
Pearson, 1999

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    Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA)
Test measure:
Measures young children's awareness of the individual sounds in words.

TOPA-2 measures the educational achievement of the children and adolescents.  Children who are sensitive to the phonological structure of words in oral language have a much easier time learning to read than childlatest are not. The TOPA can be used to identify children in kindergarten who may profit from instructionalversionties to enhance their phonological awareness in preparation for reading instruction.

The Early Elementary version of the TOPA can be used to determine if first and second-grade students’ difficulties in early reading are associated with delays in development of phonological awareness.
The TOPA is provided in a Kindergarten version suitable for administration any time during the kindergarten year.  The Early Elementary version suitable for first and second-grade children.

Administration time:
Both versions can be administered either individually or to groups of children, with group administration taking about 20 minutes. 

Age Equivalency, percentile ranks, and standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15).

There are nine subtest: Rhyming, Segmentation, Isolation, Deletion, Substitution, Blending, Grapheme's, Decoding, and Invented Spelling.
    The TOPA is a nationally normed, standardized, 20-item test that measures awareness of the individual sounds within words. Specifically, children are asked to identify the ending sounds in words. 
          Publisher: Linguisystems, 2004

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    The Phonological Awareness Test (TPAT) 34
Test measure:
Measures young children's awareness of the individual sounds in words.

Same as TOPA, children who are sensitive to the phonological structure of words in oral language have a much easier time learning to read than children who are not. The TPAT can be used to identify children in kindergarten who may profit from instructional activities to enhance their phonological awareness in preparation for reading instruction.

Ages: 5-9 and Grades: Kindergarten to 4th grade.

Administration time:

40 minutes

Age Equivalency, percentile ranks, and standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15).

There are nine subtest: Rhyming, Segmentation, Isolation, Deletion, Substitution, Blending, Graphemes, and Decoding.

Decoding tasks include: (V=vowel, C=consonant)

  VC words Vowel Digraphs
  CVC words r-controlled vowels
  Consonant Digraphs CVCe words
  Consonant Blends Diphthongs

The TPAT is a nationally normed, standardized.
To view an actual copy of the test protocol on-line: www.linguisystems.com/sample1/6-0191-7.pdf
Publisher: Lingui Systems

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    The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test® (LAC®)

    Test measure:
    The LAC helps determine which students will be at risk in reading and spelling.   It measures the ability to (1) discriminate one speech sound or phoneme from another and (2) segment a spoken word into its constituent phonemic units.

Because of the importance of these auditory skills to reading, the results are helpful for speech-language pathologists, special educators, and reading specialists.

The student must understand the concepts of sameness and difference, be able to number 1- 4, and be familiar with left-to-right progression.

It may be  administered at any age level.

Administration time:
Testing time is about 10 minutes.

Criterion-referenced measure, easy to administer, and helpful in identifying younger student may be at risk for reading problems.  Area of need of older students.

The newer version, the LAC-3, is standardized, and it will provide percentiles, and standard scores.
The table below shows the recommended minimum scores for high probability of grade-level or above-grade-level spelling and reading performance, on earlier versions of LAC:
End of the 1st half of the gradeEnd of the 2nd half of grade
1st grade411st grade61
2nd grade612nd grade71
3rd grade713rd grade81
4th grade814th grade86
5th grade865th grade93
6th grade936th grade99
7th grade99+7th grade99+
Possible score of 100, half way through 6th grade the student should be scoring 99-100.

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CELF PA subtest

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Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRMT-R) 34

    For students in Grades K-16, ages 5-0 through 75+.  Measures Word Attack and Word Identification.  The test has two alternate, equivalent forms (G and H), that are used to pre-and post-testing.  Grade equivalent, percentile and standard score are provided.
    The Word Attack subtest assesses the students' word-level phonetic decoding skills.  The subtest is comprised of 45 isolated, phonetically regular syllables, nonsense words and low frequency, phonetically regular real words.

      The use of phonetic nonsense words and syllables allows us to examine decoding in relative isolation form sight-words and vocabulary abilities.
    The Word Identification subtest assess the students "word recognition" skill (the ability to read isolated real words).
    Publisher: Pearson Assessments

    Word Identification and Spelling Test (WIST)
Identifies students who are struggling with reading and spelling.  Wilson publishes a norm-referenced called the WIST (Word Identification and Spelling Test).
Created by  by Barbara A. Wilson, Rebecca H. Felton.
Test measures: Reading decoding (phonetic and irregular), sound-symbol knowledge and spelling.  Each can be used independently.  This assessment can be used three times per year to measure student reading decoding and spelling progress.
Ages: 7 to 18 years 11 months,  Includes an elementary version (Grades 2-5) and a secondary version (Grades 6-12).
Administration time: 40 minutes
Test purpose: Assesses students who have difficulty reading continuous print and who requires an evaluation of specific abilities and weakness.
Three subtests, two “core” subtests (Word Identification and Spelling) and one "supplemental" subtest (Sound-Symbol Knowledge).
To provide additional information, the examiner may administer the informal procedures to assess a student’s performance on test items, sound-symbol skills, and errors specific to the written word.
This information enhances the examiner's interpretation of the child's test performance and aids in the formulation of a literacy intervention plan.  Publisher: Pro-Ed

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    Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
    Measures of  word reading, accuracy and fluency.  It is used to monitor the growth of two kinds of word reading skills that are critical in the development of overall reading ability.

    Recognizing familiar words as whole units or sight words, and the ability to Sound out words quickly.

    The TOWRE contains two subtests: the Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest assesses the number of real printed words that can be accurately identified within 45 seconds, and
    the Phonetic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest measures the number of pronounceable printed non-words that can be accurately decoded within 45 seconds.
    Each subtest has two forms (Forms A and B) that are of equivalent difficulty, and either one or both forms of each subtest may be given depending upon the purposes of the assessment.  Scores are provided  in percentiles, standard scores, and age and grade equivalents are provided. (1999)

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Reading Fluency:

Oral Reading Fluency Data Table by Jan Hasbrouck and Gerald Tindal
Table contains Grade Level, Percentile, and benchmark for fall, winter, and spring
Used by
Read Naturally program 

    Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) 34
    A set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy development. 

    For Students in K - 3th grade and 4th - 6th grade to measure reading fluency and comprehension.  This test can be used for benchmark assessments in the fall, winter, and spring assessments  to monitor progress (more frequent assessment of lower-achieving students).

    Scores provided for each grade level,  3 catalogues: At risk, Some risk, Low risk  or  Deficit, Emerging, Established.

    The reading comprehension has the student read a very short passage (which may not be an authentic reading comprehension situation for the for 4th - 6th upper grades.)

    The fluency measures are designed to be short (one minute) used to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and early reading skills.

    The following are seven fluency measures: Initial Sounds Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Retell Fluency (RTF) and Word Use Fluency (WUF).

This test was developed upon the essential early literacy domains discussed in both the National Reading Panel (2000) and National Research Council (1998) reports to assess student development of phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, and automaticity and fluency with the code.  Each measure has been thoroughly researched and demonstrated to be reliable and valid indicators of early literacy development and predictive of later reading proficiency to aid in the early identification of students who are not progressing as expected. When used as recommended, the results can be used to evaluate individual student development as well as provide grade-level feedback toward validated instructional objectives.  Publisher: University of Oregon

To view a sample of the DIBELS Individual Student Performance Profile for a grade 1 student

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Reading Fluency Indicator (RFI)

A brief, individually administered test of oral reading fluency that measures rate, accuracy, comprehension, and prosody.

Age Range: Grades 1 - 12, ages 5 - 18 years 

Administration Time: Approximately 5 - 10 minutes

Scores/Interpretation: Stanine scores and words read correctly per minute for rate, quartile scores for accuracy, cut scores for comprehension, and a miscue descriptive analysis.  Publisher: Psycan Education

    The Gray Oral Reading, Third Edition (GORT­-3)
    Is a popular reading test created by William S. Gray. This version provides an objective measure of growth in oral reading and an aid in the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. The GORT­-3 comprises two alternate, equivalent forms, each of which contains 13 developmentally sequenced passages with five comprehension questions.  The GORT­3 provides examiners with a Passage Score that is derived by examining the reader's performance in rate (time taken to read each passage) and deviations from print (errors). The Passage Score is reported in terms of  standard scores, percentile ranks, and grade equivalents. Also provided are standard scores, percentiles, and grade equivalents for Oral Reading Comprehension. Unlike the earlier versions, the GORT­3 adds normative scores for rate and accuracy .  A total score for Oral Reading is also provided. For ages: 7.0 through 18.11, testing time: 15-­30 minutes, administrated individually. (1992)

    For the newer version GORT- 4 see below.
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    The Gray Oral Reading Test, Fourth Edition (GORT-4)  34

    Test measures: Reading skills progress in Reading Fluency, Rate, Accuracy and Oral Reading Comprehension.

Ages: ages 6 through 18-11 months

Test purpose: Assesses students who have difficulty reading continuous print and who requires an evaluation of specific abilities and weakness.

Score: All four scores are reported in terms of standard scores, percentile ranks, grade equivalents, and age equivalents.

    This is the newest version of this test.  Some educators find student to score higher on this version of the test.
    It provides an efficient and objective measure of growth in oral reading and an aid in the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. The test consists of two parallel forms, each containing 14 developmentally sequenced reading passages with five comprehension questions and can be given to students . The GORT has 4 scores:

    Reading Fluency, Rate, Accuracy and Oral Reading Comprehension.   The Fluency Score that is derived by combining the reader's performance in Rate (time in seconds taken to read each passage) and Accuracy (number of deviations from print made in each passage). The number of correct responses made to the comprehension questions provides examiners with an Oral Reading Comprehension Score.  The Fluency Score and the Oral Reading Comprehension Score are combined to obtain an Oral Reading Quotient.
    The test -retest study was conducted with all ages for which the test can be administered and illustrates the stability and reliability of the measure. The validity is extensive and includes studies that illustrate that the GORT­4 can be used with confidence to measure change in oral reading over time. The GORT-4 has many improvements.  Finally, several new validity studies have been conducted, including  an examination of the relationship of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , Third Edition (WISC­III) to the GORT­4. You can use the GORT­4 in a variety of settings, such as elementary and secondary schools, clinics, and reading centers. The two forms of the test allow you to study an individual's oral reading progress over time.
    Publisher: Pro-Ed and Pearson (2001)

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    The Gray Oral Reading Tests-Diagnostic  (GORT-D)
    now called: Gray Diagnostic Reading Tests (GDRT-2)

    Test measure: Reading skills progress

Ages: 6 - 13, 11 months

Administration time: 45 - 60 minutes

Test purpose: Assesses students who have difficulty reading continuous print and who requires an evaluation of specific abilities and weakness.

Score: Two parallel forms

    The GDRT-2, a revision of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Diagnostic (GORT-D),
    (There are also the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fourth Edition (GORT-4) and the Gray Silent  Reading Tests (GSRT), form the Gray reading test battery.)

    GDRT 4 core subtests: Letter/Word Identification, Phonetic Analysis, Reading Vocabulary, and Meaningful Reading.
    There are 3 supplemental subtests, Listening Vocabulary, Rapid Naming, and Phonological Awareness. 

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Test of Language Development (TOLD)

Test of Language Development - Primary
Pre-Kindergarten through fourth grade An individually administered language battery.
Ages: 4-0 through 8-11
Administration Time: 1 hour
Development­Primary, Third Edition (TOLD-P) has 9 subtests that measure different components of spoken language. Picture Vocabulary, Relational Vocabulary, and Oral Vocabulary assess the understanding and meaningful use of spoken words. Grammatic Understanding, Sentence Imitation, and Grammatic Completion assess differing aspects of grammar. Word Articulation, Phonemic Analysis, and Word Discrimination are supplemental subtests that measure the abilities to say words correctly and to distinguish between words that sound similar.  Publisher: AGS Publishing

TOLD PRIMARY (Ages 4-0 through 8-11)





Picture Vocabulary

Understanding words



Relational Vocabulary 

Mediating vocabulary



Oral Vocabulary

Defining words



Grammatic Understanding

Understanding sentence meaning



Grammatic Completion

Understanding sentence formation



Sentence Imitation

Repeating sentences



Word Discrimination

Noticing sound difference



Phonemic Analysis 

Segmenting words



Word Articulation

Saying words correctly


Test of Language Development - Intermediate
Focus on middle school language
An individually administered language battery.
Ages: 8-0 through 12-11
Administration Time: 30 minutes to 1 hour
The TOLD-I, third edition assesses the understanding and meaningful use of spoken words, as well as different aspects of grammar. This third edition features five subtests.

TOLD INTERMEDIATE (Ages 8-0 through 12-11)





Sentence Combining

Constructing sentences



Picture Vocabulary

Understanding word relationships



Word Ordering

Constructing sentences




Knowing abstract relationships



Grammatic Comprehension

Recognizing grammatical sentences




Correcting ridiculous sentences


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Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)  34

PPVT measures receptive vocabulary for standard English and a screening test of verbal ability.  Several versions of this test: PPVT-R, PPVT-III, PPVT-IV.
Ages 2-1/2 (2.6) through 90+ years.
Administration Time: 10-15 minutes
Publisher: AGS Publishing

Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) 34

The Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), expressive vocabulary and word retrieval.  The expressive assessment counterpart used in conjunction with the PPVT test (see the description above), and have both been updated (2006).
Ages 2-1/2 (2.6) through 90+ years.
Administration Time: 10-15 minutes
Publisher: Parson

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Reading Comprehension

The Test of Reading Comprehension (TORC)– Fourth Edition

Age Range: 7 to 17.11 years
Testing Time: 45 minutes or less
Administration:  Individual

Test silent reading comprehension that can be used to (a) identify children and adolescents who score significantly below their peers and who therefore might need help in improving their reading proficiency and comprehension, (b) document student progress in remedial programs, and (c) serve as a research tool in studies investigating reading problems in children and adolescents.

These are the five subtests, all of which measure word identification and contextual meaning. Studies in the TORC-4 manual indicate that the test has high reliability and strong validity, especially criterion-prediction validity.

  • Relational Vocabulary – From the Student Question Booklet, the student reads a set of three words that are in some way related to each other. The student is to then silently read another four words and choose two words that are related to the first set of three words.
  • Sentence Completion – From the Student Question Booklet, the student silently reads a sentence that is missing two words. The student then silently reads a list of word pairs and chooses the word pair that best completes the sentence.
  • Paragraph Construction – After silently reading a list of sentences that are not in logical order, the student must then rearrange the sentences to form a coherent paragraph. 
  • Text Comprehension – Students silently read a short passage and then answer five multiple-choice questions relative to the passage.
  • Contextual Fluency – This subtest measures how many individual words students can recognize, in 3 minutes, in a series of passages taken from the Text Comprehension Subtest. Each passage, printed in uppercase letters without punctuation or spaces between words, becomes progressively more difficult in content, vocabulary, and grammar. This is a format pioneered by J.P. Guilford to represent reading in his Structure of Intellect model. As students read the segments, they draw a line between as many words as they can in the time allotted.  (E.g., THE|LITTLE|DOG|JUMPED|HIGH)

  • Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (GMRT) Fourth Edition
    Group Administered reading survey test,
    It has two forms S and T.  Norm-referenced tests.
    Grades: K-12, adult education; Online: Grades: 3-12
    Administration time: 55 minutes to 100 minutes, paper-pencil and online versions.
    Vocabulary 20 minutes (45 items) and Comprehension 35 minutes (48 items)
    Date Published: 2002

    Four levels:

    The Pre-reading level contains 4 subtests: 1) literacy concepts, 2). oral language concepts and 3). letter-sound correspondence and 4). story listening comprehension.  Students are not required to read at this level, as they choose answers from pictures or symbols.  Pictures are always identified by the teacher.

    The Beginning reading level contains 3 subtests 1). initial consonants and consonant clusters, 2). use of final consonants and consonant clusters, use of vowels, and 3). Basic story words, evaluates students' abilities to identify words most commonly used in written text that typically are learned without decoding.  At this level children are asked to choose pictures with names that begin or end with certain letters, to read words, and to read simple sentences.  The teacher reads most of the questions to the children, who then choose answers from pictures or words.

    Levels 1 through 12 were designed to provide a general assessment of reading achievement.  At these levels the 4 subtests: 1). Word Decoding, 2). Word Knowledge, and 3). Comprehension.  Both Level 1 and Level 2 contain a Word Decoding test, which evaluates students' abilities to decode or recognize words and a Comprehension test, which evaluates students' abilities to understand extended written text.  Level 2 also contains a Word Knowledge test, which evaluates beginning reading vocabulary.  For Word Decoding, incorrect answer choices are based on common decoding errors; for Word Knowledge, on errors of meaning. 

    4). Vocabulary subtests at levels 1 and 2 are primarily a test of decoding skills.

    At levels 3 through 12 the vocabulary subtest is a measure of Word Knowledge.  Students are asked to select a word or phrase that means most nearly the same as a test word.   Students need to either recognize or sound out words that correspond to pictures.  At levels 1 and 2 comprehension of "passages"(sic) ranging form one sentence to five sentences is measured by asking children to choose the picture that illustrates the "passage" or answers a question about the "passage." At levels 3-12 students respond to questions in a multiple-choice format.

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    Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) 34

    Author: Kathleen T. Williams
    Date Published: 2001

    For Pre-Kindergarten through Adult (post secondary):

    Level P for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten;
    Level K for kindergarten and first grade;
    Level 1 for kindergarten, first, and second grade;
    Levels 2-6 for upper elementary school;
    Level M for middle school grades 5 through 9;
    Level H for high school, and
    Level A for upper high school and post secondary students.

    Passage Comprehension -- Student reads a passage of text and responds to multiple-choice comprehension questions (both explicit and implicit).   This subtest is for each grade level, up to adult level.  

    This is a link to the GRADE (119 pages) marketing brochure, with samples of the different test sections:


    The Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) is not timed.
    The administration time for the whole test is 45 - 90 mins.  If the student takes extra time on the Comprehension section it should be noted by the examiner.

    test can be given 4 times a year.  That there 2 forms A and B, used by alternating them.

    Scores provided: Percentile ranks, standard scores, grade equivalents, normal curve equivalents, stanines, and growth scale values.

    There are six subtests: Word reading (decoding and sight words), Word meaning (decoding and sight words), Vocabulary, Sentence comprehension, Passage comprehension, and Listening comprehension.

    Publisher: Pearson Publishing

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    Gray Silent Reading Test (GSRT)
    Measures an individual's silent reading comprehension ability ages 7 - 25.
    This test consists of two parallel forms each containing 13 developmentally sequenced reading passages with five multiple-choice questions. The two forms of the test allow you to study an individual's reading progress over time.  It can be given individually or to groups.  Each form, of the test yields raw scores, grade equivalents, age equivalents, percentiles, and a Silent Reading Quotient.  Publisher: Pro-Ed

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      Classroom checks:

      Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (DAR)
      Provides individual diagnostic information in the areas of reading and language: word recognition, word analysis, oral reading, silent reading comprehension, spelling, and word meaning. Can be used by classroom teacher to get a quick assessment of a child's reading. Appropriate use requires training. This test is criterion referenced test, not as reliable as norm referred test. Grades K - 3 version, another version for grades 4 - 8. There are two measures of reading skill oral reading (decoding) and comprehension. A reported instructional level is meaningless in DAR for both decoding and comprehension. There is not one score. Hearing your child is reading at "DAR of level 12" does not give you enough information about student's reading performance.

    For Oral reading (decoding) scores of 94% or better indicates independent reading level.
    Comprehension should be reported as an independent level and the score in the assessment.  Adequate comprehension (score 16-21) is considered passing = independent.  Publisher: Riverside Publishing Company
    Appropriate reporting would be:

    Oral Reading level



    Comprehension level


    A - 2


    6 - 9

    Very little comprehension


    First Grade

    10 - 15

    Some comprehension


    Second Grade

    16 - 21

    Adequate comprehension


    Third grade 

    22 - 24

    Very good comprehension


    Strong third grade



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      Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI)
      Is an informal reading inventories. It provides graded word lists and numerous passages designed to assess the oral reading, silent reading, or listening comprehension of a student. It contains narrative and expository passages at each pre-primer through high school level. All are self-contained selections highly representative of the structure and subject matter of materials found in basal readers and content-area textbooks.  Passages at the pre-primer through second grade levels are presented with and without pictures. Maps and illustrations are part of the high school selection. Prior to reading, knowledge of concepts important to an understanding of the passage is assessed, which allows the examiner to label a passage as familiar or unfamiliar to each student. The QRI–3 measures comprehension in several ways: through an analysis of the student's retelling, through the answers to explicit and implicit comprehension questions, through the use of look-backs that allow readers to search in the text for information to answer questions not previously answered correctly, and through the use of think-alouds to analyze students’ thoughts during reading.  This test allows the user to evaluate a reader's comprehension abilities in light of his or her background knowledge about a subject and whether the text was narrative or expository. The reader's answers to explicit and implicit comprehension questions allow the examiner to assess the reader's understanding of the text.  The examiner can also assess the reader's understanding of the structure of the text through a qualitative analysis of his or her retelling.  Look-backs and think-alouds can be used to assess a reader's awareness and use of various metacognitive strategies for comprehending text.


      The Wilson Assessment of Decoding and Encoding (WADE)
      A criterion-referenced assessment that can be used for pre and post testing purposes, as well as a placement and pacing guide. The WADE measures sound production of graphemes in isolation, fluent decoding (sounding out words) and encoding (spelling) of phonetically regular words and high frequency irregular words.  Wilson states that the WADE must be used as well as a formal reading test. Either the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, Woodcock Johnson III, or Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery is recommended. A similar, individualized reading assessment may be substituted if it provides information regarding decoding, comprehension and total reading.  Publisher:

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    Standford diagnostic Test
    There two separate test, one for reading and mathematics.  The Stanford Diagnostic Reading (SDRT) and Mathematics Test (SDMT). Both tests a student's reading and mathematics strengths and weaknesses.  Both the Stanford Diagnostic tests are for Grades: 2 - 12, The test are colored coded, Red=Grade 2, Orange=Grade 3, Green=Grade 4, Purple=Grade 5- 6, Brown=Grade 7-8, Blue=Grade 9-12. There is only one form for the Red, Orange and Green levels - Form J. There are two forms for the Purple, Brown and Blue levels - Forms J and K.
    Publisher: Pearson

    STANFORD Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT) - 4th edition
    The test SDRT is a group administered, norm-referenced multiple-choice test, and has 3 subtests.

    Administration time: The test SDRT is 85 minute test may be given in one sitting or each section may be given on different days or different times.

    Each section must be given in one sitting.


    • Above, at, or close to grade level: No more than one year below grade level.
    • Below grade level: More than one year below grade level, but no more than three years below grade level at grades 6-10 and two years below grade level at grades 4 and 5.
    • Significantly below grade level: More than three years below grade level at grades 6-10; more than two years below grade level at grades 4 and 5.

    The Total Reading score is not an average of the three scores on the subtests--weighted, unweighted, or otherwise. It is based on the total number of questions answered correctly on all portions of the test and is derived by comparing how the student performed on the whole test with how students from different grade levels at different times of the year have typically performed on the same test.  

    Reading Vocabulary  measures the range of words your child knows, based on grade-level expectations;
    Reading Comprehension measures how well your child understands and analyzes various types of reading material; and Scanning Skills measures your child’s ability to skim through reading material to find information.

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    Reading Levels Chart  - This table that cross reference the various common reading levels used in different reading programs. It includes a 8 column table: Grade level (Basal level), Fountas/Pinnell (FP), DRA Levels, EIL Levels, PM Levels, Rigby Levels, and Sails. Created by Harcourt Achieve’s Educational Support Services Department (Aug. 2005).

    As part of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, and the “Reading First” Initiative (2001), The Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) has two tables: Core and Intervention reading program that are on the market.  FCRR reports Rating of Reading programs, by the five critical components areas of reading:

    1. Phonemic Awareness
    2. Phonics
    3. Fluency
    4. Vocabulary
    5. Comprehension strategies

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    Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test

    Test Purpose: Designed to identify specific mathematical concepts in which a student is lacking.

    Population: Grades 1.5 to 6.5.

    Scoring: Covering the mathematical content of grades 1 through 8, the test is divided into four levels, (two grades per level).
    Has both norm-referenced and content-referenced interpretations.  The three subtests produce raw scores that can be converted into percentile ranks, stanines, grade equivalents, and scaled scores for each of the three subtests and for the total score.

    Subtest:  Three areas: Number System and Numeration, Computation, and Applications. It may be administered to single individuals or to groups, and permits both norm-referenced and content-referenced interpretations.

    Time: (95-110) minutes, it may be administered to single individuals or to groups.

    Description: The Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test (SDMT) was designed to identify those specific mathematical concepts and skills on which a student is making less than satisfactory progress. 

    Publisher: Pearson
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    Analytical Reading Inventory (ARI)

    Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)

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      Test of Early Written Language (TEWL) - There are two forms of this test (form A and B, so the test can be repeated with it being contaminated by memory.)  For students ages: 4 to 10 years, 11 months.   Completion Time 30 to 50 minutes. TEWL-3, Publication date: 2012. 

      Contextual Writing. This subtest consists of 20 items that are scored 0 to 3. Two sets of pictures are provided, one for younger children (ages 5-0 through 6-11) and one for older children (ages 7-0 through 11-11). This subtest measures a child’s ability to construct a story when provided with a picture prompt. The subtest measures story format, cohesion, thematic maturity, ideation, and story structure. A detailed, expanded scoring guide is provided to assist in scoring the Contextual Writing subtest. This subtest can also be administered independently or in conjunction with the Basic Writing subtest. Age-based norms are provided for children ages 5-0 through 11-11. Grade-based norms are provided for Grades 2 through 6.

      Overall Writing. The Overall Writing index combines the index scores from the Basic Writing and Contextual Writing subtests. It is a measure of the child’s overall writing ability; students who score high on this quotient demonstrate strengths in composition, syntax, mechanics, fluency, cohesion, and the text structure of written language. This score can only be computed if the child completes both subtests and is at least 5 years of age.  Publisher: Pearson Assessments

      Writing Process Test (WPT) - This norm-referenced test is a direct measure of writing that requires the student to plan, write, and revise an original composition. The WPT assesses both written product and writing process. The student’s analysis is elicited via a checklist of quick, easy questions about the composition. There are two scales, Development and Fluency. 
      The six Development Scales assess Purpose and Focus, Audience, Vocabulary, Style and Tone, Support and Development, and Organization and Coherence.
      The six Fluency Scales assess Sentence Structure and Variety, Grammar and Usage, Capitalization and Punctuation, and Spelling. 
      The examiner can also gain insight into the student’s awareness of having used metacognitive strategies when planning and recursive behaviors when composing and revising.   The test can be administered individually or in groups for age 8 to 19 years of age (or in grades 2 to 12), and administration usually takes 45 minutes.  Publisher: Pro-Ed

      Test of Written Language (TOWL) - There are two forms of this test (form A and B, so the test can be repeated with it being contaminated by memory.)  Examiners can evaluate student growth in writing using pretesting and post testing that is not contaminated by memory. Composite quotients are available for overall writing, contrived writing, and spontaneous writing.  Eight subtest: Contextual conventions, Contextual language, Story construction, Vocabulary, Spelling, Style, Logical sentences, and Sentence combining.   Details on three of the subtests: Contextual Conventions-measures capitalization, punctuation, and spelling; Contextual Language-measures vocabulary, syntax, and grammar; and Story Construction-measures plot, character development, and general composition.  For students in grade 2 to 12.  Publisher: Pearson Assessments

      Test of Written Expression (TOWE)  -
      Uses two assessment methods to evaluate a student's writing skills. The first method involves administering a series of 76 items that tap different skills associated with writing. The second method requires students to read or hear a prepared story starter and use it as a stimulus for writing an essay (i.e., the beginning of the story is provided, and the writer continues the story to its conclusion).  For students between 6 years, 6 months to 14 years, 11 months.  Publisher: Pearson Assessments


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      Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) - Accesses the student's ability to spell 50 isolated real words that are organized on order of difficulty.  This test provides standard scores, percentiles  and grade equivalents.

      Test of Written Spelling Fourth Edition (TWS-4) - Is a norm-referenced test of spelling administered using a dictated word format. The TWS-4 now has two alternate or equivalent forms (A and B) which make it more useful in test-teach-test situations. The TWS-4 is appropriate for students in Grades 1 through 12 as well as for those in remedial programs. The TWS was developed after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The words to be spelled are drawn from 10 basal spelling programs and popular graded word lists.   The results of the TWS-4 may be used for four specific purposes: to identify students whose scores are significantly below those of their peers and who might need interventions designed to improve spelling proficiency, to determine areas of relative strength and weakness in spelling, to document overall progress in spelling as a consequence of intervention programs, and to serve as a measure for research efforts designed to investigate spelling.  Can be administered in 20 minutes to either groups or individuals and yields the following educationally relevant information: standard scores, percentiles, spelling ages, and grade equivalents.

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    Key  Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test - Revised (Key Math-R) - The student "points-to" and uses "paper and pencil".  Takes 30-45 minutes, for ages preschool to grade 6.  There are three major areas consisting of 14 subtest.   Basic concepts -investigates basic Mathematical concepts and knowledge (Numeration, rational numbers and Geometry), Operations -of basic computation process (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and mental computations), and Applications- Functional application using mathematics necessary to daily life (Measurement, time, money, estimation, interpretation of data, problem solving).  Publisher: Pearson Publishing.  

    Test of Mathematical Abilities (TOMA) - The TOMA-2 was  developed for use in grades 3 through 12. It measures math performance on the two traditional major skill areas in math (i.e., story problems and computation) as well as attitude, vocabulary, and general application of mathematics concepts in real life.  The TOMA-2 has five subtests, four in the core battery (Vocabulary, Computation, General Information, and Story Problems) and one supplemental subtest (Attitude Toward Math).  Publisher: AGS Publishing 

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    Speech and Language:

    CELF-3 -  Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, thrid edition 
    This is a comprehensive diagnostic tool to measure the (oral) language skills of learning-disabled students in the areas of semantics, syntax, and memory.

    Age Range: 6 - 21 years.
    Time to administer: individual, 30-45 minutes depending on client.
    Publisher: Pearson

    The CELF-3 has 11 Subtests include:

    Sentence Structure (Receptive), Concepts and Directions (Receptive),  Semantic Relationships (Receptive), Listening to Paragraphs (Receptive), Word Classes (Receptive), Recalling Sentences (Expressive),  Word Structure (Expressive), Formulated Sentences (Expressive), Sentence Assembly (Expressive),  Word Associations (Expressive),  Rapid Automatic Naming (Expressive).  Pragmatics Profile is not administered as a standardized test, it is a profile used to gain information about the student's social performance in the classroom.

    Receptive Language:
    1. Sentence structure: points to 1 of 4 pictures in response to an orally presented stimulus.
    2. Concepts and directions: identifies pictures of geometric shapes in response to orally presented direction.  This subtest evaluates a student's ability to interpret, recall and carry out oral commend as of increasing length and complexity containing specific linguistic concepts.
    3. Semantic relations: listen to 4 facts, then select 2 of 4 visually presented options.
    4. Word classes: picks 2 out of 3 or 4 words orally presented that go together.
    5. Recalling sentences: imitation of orally presented sentence. This subtest evaluates a student's ability to recall and repeat spoken sentences of increasing length and complexity with out changing the words or word meaning and no visual stimuli.

    Expressive  Language:
    1. Sentence assembly: produces 2 semantically and syntactically intact sentences from visually and orally presented words or word clusters.
    2. Word structure: completes orally presented sentences with picture stimuli.
    3. Formulated sentences: given target word and picture stimulus and asked to form sentence.
    4. Recalling sentences: imitate orally presented sentences.
    5. Word associations: lists as many words within given category as possible in 1 minute.

    The whole battery need not be administered to obtain a norm referenced language score.  Three subtests can be administered to obtain an Expressive Language score, and 3 subtests can be administered to obtain an receptive language score.

    CELF-4 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, fourth edition

    Age Range: 5 - 21 years.
    Time to administer: individual, 30-60 minutes depending on client.
    View a
    CELF-4 Scoring Assistant Sample Scoring Report
    Publisher: Pearson

    CELF–4 has 19 subtests, some are new subtests, others are revised subtests from CELF–3, and still others are CELF–3
    subtests that have been maintained without changes. A description of each of the new CELF–4 subtests follows.

    Expressive Vocabulary, for ages 5–9 years, enables you to evaluate the student’s ability to name illustrations of
    people, objects, and actions (referential naming). This ability relates to preschool, and elementary grade curriculum
    objectives for labeling and remembering names for people and objects (nouns) and actions (verbs) and using them in
    academic contexts in response to pictures, graphs, diagrams, and other illustrations, and in spontaneous language to
    express concise meaning.

    Word Definitions, for ages 10–21 years, you can evaluate the student’s ability to analyze words for their meaning features, and define words by referring to class relationships and shared meanings, and describe meanings that are unique to the reference or instance. This ability relates to upper elementary and secondary grade curriculum objectives for knowing and using words as concepts with broad, generic applications, rather than with narrow, concrete and contextually bound meanings.

    The Expressive Vocabulary and Word Definitions subtests enable you to probe the student’s vocabulary skills.

    Phonological Awareness subtest helps evaluate the student’s knowledge of the sound structure of the language and the ability to manipulate sound through:

    (a) rhyme awareness and production;
    (b) sentence, syllable, and phoneme segmentation;
    (c) syllable and phoneme blending;
    (d) syllable detection; and
    (e) phoneme identification and manipulation.

    Phonological awareness skills relate to preschool and elementary-grade curriculum objectives for producing rhyme and manipulating sounds required for pre-reading and reading. The Phonological Awareness subtest was added to strengthen CELF–4’s tie to literacy.

    The Pragmatics Profile provides a profile of a student’s pragmatic skills with a checklist of descriptive items in three areas:

    Rituals and Conversational Skills;
    Asking For, Giving, and Responding to Information; and
    Nonverbal Communication Skills.

    The Pragmatics Profile broadens the scope of assessment by encouraging teachers and/or caregivers to participate in the evaluation process.  Pragmatics Profile was added to CELF–4 to help evaluate a child’s language use.

    Observational Rating Scale (ORS) is now included with CELF–4 as a performance-based assessment. It offers 40 statements that describe problems a student may have in listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  Parents and teachers rate the student using a 4-point frequency of occurrence scale. The student can evaluate his or her own skills in this area, too. The Observational Rating Scale provides information about the student’s language in classroom
    and home contexts.

    Working Memory can now be assessed using Familiar Sequences and Number Repetition. The Working Memory index score and Number Repetition and Familiar Sequences subtests are included  to help you explore the possible effect memory skills may have on a student’s language disorder. Consider a student’s Working Memory index score as preliminary screening information to be used in making decisions about the need for referrals to other professionals who can fully evaluate the student’s memory abilities. Number Repetition and Familiar Sequences subtests broaden the scope of CELF–4 and provide information about  working memory ability.

    The CELF–4 subtests provide a measure of specific aspects of language form, content, use, and working memory depending on the subtest task and the student’s response.

    Several subtests are used to make up each composite score.  In addition to the Core Language score, CELF–4 provides the following scores to help you assess your students:

    Receptive Language index, Expressive Language index, Language Content index, Language Structure index, Language Memory index, and the Working Memory index.

    CELF-4 Composite Score Formed
    Subtests Student Tasks Category Ages 5-8 Ages 9-21
    Concepts and Following Directions The student points to pictured objects in responce to oral directions receptive core 9-12 core
    Word Structure The student completes sentences using the targeted structure(s) expressive  core
    Recalling Sentences The student imitates sentences presented by the examiner receptive /
    core core
    Formulated Sentences The student formulates a sentence about visual stimuli using a targeted word or phrase expressive core core
    Word Classes 1 and 2 The student chooses two related word and describes their relataionship receptive receptive /
    Sentence Structure The student points to a picture that illustrates the given sentence receptive receptive /
    Expressive Vocabulary The student identifies a pictured object, person, or activity expressive content content
    Word Definitions The student defines a word that is presented and used in a sentence receptive core /
    Understanding Spoken Paragraphs The student responds to questions aobut orally presented paragraphs; questions target main idea, details, sequence, inferential, and predictive information. receptive supplemental content / receptive
    Sentence Assembly The student produces two semantically / grammatically correct sentences from visually and orally presented words/group of words. expressive content
    Semantic Relationsships The student listens to a sentence and selects the two choices that answer a target question receptive receptive /
    language memory
    Number Repetitions 1 and 2 The student repeats a series of numbers forward, then backwards expressive working memory working memory
    Familiar Sequences 1 and 2 The student names the days of week, counts backward, orders other informaiton while being timed expressive working memory working memory
    Rapid Automatic Naming The student names colors, shapes, and color-shapes combinations wile being timed expressive supplemental supplemental
    Word Associations The student names words in specific categories while being timed expressive supplemental supplemental
    Phonological.Awareness The student rhymes, segments, blends, identified sounds and syllables in words and sentences expressive supplemental supplemental
    Pragmatics Profile The examiner elicits informaiton from a parent or teacher about the student's social language skills. receptive /
    supplemental supplemental
    Observational Rating Scales Parent, teacher(s), and student each rate the student's classroom interaction and communication skills. receptive /
    supplemental supplemental

     = new subtest CELF-3 to CELF-4

    core = core language score  structure = structure index
    receptive = receptive language index language memory = language memory index
    expressive= expressive  language index working memory = working memory index
    content = language content index supplemental = supplemental subtest

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    Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL)

    Orally administered, research-based, theory-driven oral language assessment battery for ages 3 through 21.

    15 tests measure language processing skills, comprehension, expression, and retrieval.  There are four language structure categories: Lexical/Semantic, Syntactic, Supralinguistic, and Pragmatic.

    No reading or writing required

    Only a verbal or nonverbal (pointing) response is required. Reading or writing ability is not needed to respond to test items.

    The CASL battery is ideal for measuring delayed language, oral language disorders, dyslexia, and aphasia.

    There are 4 oral language categories:

    Lexical/ Semantic Tests: Lexical/Semantic - knowledge and use of words and word combinations. Tests include: Basic Concepts, Antonyms, Synonyms, Sentence Completion, and Idiomatic Language.

    Syntactic Tests: knowledge and use of grammar (morphology and syntax). Tests include: Syntax Construction, Paragraph Comprehension, Grammatical Morphemes, Sentence Comprehension, and Grammaticality Judgement.

    Supralinguistic Tests: Supralinguistic - comprehension of complex language whose meaning is not directly available from lexical or grammatical information. Tests include: Nonliteral Language, Meaning from Context, Inference, and Ambiguous Sentences

    Pragmatic Test: awareness of appropriate language in a situational context and the ability to modify this language as necessary.

    View and download the CASL 15 subtest Chart   

    Publisher: Pearson                            

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    Test of Language Competence (TLC)

    Test Measure:
    Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression part of metalinguistic higher-level language functions.

    Subtests include:
    1. Ambiguous Sentences - assesses a student's ability to comprehend and accurately interpret sentences that contain ambiguities arising from multiple-meaning words or syntactic structure.

    2. Listening Comprehension: Making Inferences - assesses a student's ability to listen and understand description of situations presented orally in order to generate two plausible inferences.  (This is different from TOPS subtest, also called making inferences where the student needs to give a logical explanation about a situation combing what they know or able to use their own previous experiences and background information.)
    3. Oral Expression: Recreating Speech Acts -
    assesses a student's ability to formulate sentences related to a given situation using correct syntax and semantic content.

    4. Figurative Language - assesses a student's ability to comprehend and interpret figurative expressions, and a supplemental memory subtest.

    Age Range: Level 1 -  ages  5 - 9 years old, or
                         Level 2 - ages 10 - 18 years old

    Time to administer: individual, less than 60 minutes depending on client.

    Publisher: Harcourt

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    Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)

    Test measure:
    Language tasks, there are 3 sections: Written Expression, Oral Expression, and Listening Comprehension.

    Written Expression - measures the use of conventions (handwriting, spelling, punctuation), the use of syntactical forms (modifiers, phrases, sentence structures), and the ability to communicate meaningfully (relevance, cohesiveness, organization). The examiner presents oral, written, and pictorial prompts, and examinees write their responses in a booklet.
    Oral Expression - requires no reading on the student's part.  The examiner reads a stimulus word printed on one side of the convenient easel, and the examinees responds by indicating one of four pictures on the other side.
    Listening Comprehension - requires the examinee to answer questions, complete sentences, or generate sentences in response to oral or verbal stimuli.

    Ages Range: 3- 21 years  for Oral Expression, and Listening Comprehension.
    ages 5 - 21 for Written Expression

    Administration time:
    Written Expression - 15 to 25 minutes, Oral Expression - 10 to 25 minutes, and Listening Comprehension - 5 to 15 minutes.

    Provides both age-based and grade-based standard scores, grade and test-age equivalents, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, and stanines

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    Test of Narrative Language (TNL)
    by Ronald B. Gillam, Nils A. Pearson

    test measures the child's use of proper nouns, actions verbs, temporal adverbs, and causal adverbs within well-formed simple and complex sentences that are contained in script-like stories and fictional stories.

    Ages: 5 - 11 yrs.11 mos. , grade K-6

    The Narrative Comprehension subtest assesses children's ability to recall and understand information in stories produced by others. It also assesses the ability to make inferences about information that was not explicitly stated in stories.

    The Oral Narration subtest assesses children's ability to weave words and sentences into stories that contain characters who engage in goal-directed actions, complicating events, and solutions.

    Publisher: Lingui Systems

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    Test of Problem Solving - Elementary (TOPS-E)

    Test measure: Responses show performance in these areas:  problem solving,  determining solutions,  drawing inferences,  empathizing, predicting outcomes,  using context clues and  vocabulary comprehension.

    Ages:  6 - 11 years

    Purpose: Assess ability to organize thoughts and express ideas clearly.  To measure a students use language to think and problem solve. Students are asked questions about a series of photographs.

    1. Making Inferences - Requires the student to give a logical explanation about a situation combing what he knows or can see to previous experiences and background information.
    2. Sequencing - Requires the student to determine and explain logical, everyday sequences of events, such as what one needs to know or do before taking action in a situation or what one should do first in a given situation.
    3. Negative Question - Requires the student to explain why something would not occur or why one should not take a particular action in a specific situation.
    4. Problem Solving - Requires the student to recognize the problem, think of an alternative solution, evaluate the options and state an appropriate solution to a given situation.  It also requires him to sate ways to avoid specific problems.
    5. Predicting - Requires the student to demonstrate understanding of a presented situation and make a reasonable prediction about what will happen of what would happen if a certain action were taken in the situation.
    6. Determine Causes - Requires the student to give a logical reason for some aspect of the situation presented.

    Admin. Time: 35 minutes - Individual
    Norms: standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalency for total test

    Publisher: Lingui Systems

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    Test of Problem Solving - Adolescent (TOPS-A)
    Test Measure: There are 13 problem solving passage and open ended questions to reveal abilities in these areas: clarifying, evaluating, fair-mindedness, analyzing, thinking independently, affect.

    Ages: 12 - 18 years

    Purpose: Assess expressive language, thinking, and problem solving skills.
    An older students thinking disorders.  As student get older their thinking become more obvious. Evaluate teens' thinking and language skills with TOPS - Adolescent and let the results help you design therapy programs

    For a description of the subtests (see the TOPS-E above)

    Admin. Time: 40 minutes - Individual
    Norms: standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalency for total test

    Lingui Systems 

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    Test of Auditory Processing Skills (TAPS)

    The TAPS-3 measures what a person does with what is heard, and is intended to be used along with other tests.

    Ages: 4-18 and Grades PreK-adult
    Testing Time: one hour

    Subtests: Word Discrimination, Word Memory, Phonological Segmentation,  Sentence Memory, Phonological Blending, Auditory Comprehension, Numbers Forward, Auditory Reasoning and Numbers Reversed.  In addition to one overall score, individual subtest scores are combined to derive three cluster scores: Basic Auditory Skills (Word Discrimination, Phonological Segmentation, and Phonological Blending subtests), Auditory Memory (Number Memory Forward, Number Memory Reversed, Word Memory, and Sentence Memory), and Auditory Cohesion (Auditory Comprehension and Auditory Reasoning subtests).

    Publisher: Lingui Systems

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    Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3)

    The test covers all the major speech sounds in the English language, including initial and final consonants and blends, vowels, and diphthongs.

    Ages: 1 - 18 years.

    Purpose: A clinical measure of articulatory competence in children and adolescents.

    Qualifications to Administer: Completion of graduate training as a speech language pathologist.
    The test still uses a simple picture-presentation format that offers complete administration to most children in less than 3 minutes. Scoring involves the easy-to-understand "Total Score" that expresses the child's successful speech production on a scale from 1 to 100.

    Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA-2) is a systematic means of assessing an individual’s articulation of the consonant sounds of Standard American English. It provides a wide range of information by sampling both spontaneous and imitative sound production, including single words and conversational speech.
    2 years through 21 years, administration time: 5 to 15 minutes (depending on age)
    3 Subtests: Sounds-in-Words (normed test), Sounds-in-Sentences, and Stimulability
    Provides information about a child's articulation ability by sampling both spontaneous and imitative sounds.
    Measures articulation of consonant sounds and determines types of misarticulation. The Sounds-in-Words section is norm-referenced. The Sounds-in-Sentences and Stimulability sections are not norm-referenced.


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    The Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL)

    Purpose: The student's ability to effectively use pragmatic language. Pragmatic language is language that is used socially to achieve goals, involving not only what is said but also why and for what purpose something is said.   The assessment is derived from the operational framework of the Model of Pragmatic Language.  The TOPL tests the student's knowledge of what pragmatic language is not their level of the skill.

    Ages: kindergarten, age 5 to age 13,
     criterion-referenced assessment for junior high school (age 17-18)

    Test Measure: 
    6 core subcomponents of pragmatic language:

    1. Physical setting - Refers to the setting and event.  The setting is the place where the conversation takes place and the event is the context for the a communication exchange.
    2. Audience - Refer to the relationship that is developed within a conversation.
    3. Topic - Is related to the cohesive and logical sequence of ideas and sentences which relate to the topic.  It also refers to topic maintenance and content.
    4. Purpose (speech acts) of a communication exchange is the objective of the conversation and the plan to achieve that objective.  These objectives include requesting, informing, regulating, expressing, ritualizing and organizing.
    5. Visual ­gestural cue - section relates to nonverbal language.
    6. Abstraction - refer to figurative or metophors in which the message is carried.
    Admin. Time: 45 minutes - Individual
    Norms: standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalency for total test

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    Occupational Therapy(OT)

    Miller Assessment for Preschoolers(MAP) - For the identification of preschool children with mild to moderate developmental delays across a broad range of content domains, including behavioral, motor, and cognitive. MAP is a short and comprehensive screening instrument for ages 2 years, 9 months -  5 years, 8 months. It requires 20 to 30 minutes administration time and provides data on co-ordination, verbal, nonverbal, and complex tasks.

    Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS)  -  early childhood motor development program that provides both in-depth assessment and training or remediation of gross and fine motor skills.  The assessment is composed of six subtests that measure the interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life from birth through 5 years of age. Reliability and validity have been determined empirically.  
    PDMS-2 has 6 Subtests:

    1. Reflexes - 8 items measure a child's ability to automatically react to environmental events.
    2. Stationary - 30 items measure a child's ability to sustain control of his or her body within its center of gravity and retain equilibrium.
    3. Locomotion - 89 items measure a child's ability to move from one place to another by crawling, walking, running, hopping, and jumping forward.
    4. Object Manipulation - 24 items measure a child's ability to manipulate balls by catching, throwing, and kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12 months and older.
    5. Grasping - 26 items measure a child's ability to use his or her hands. It begins with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses to actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
    6. Visual-Motor Integration - 72 items measure a child's ability to use his or her visual-perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and copying designs.    

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    Gardner Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills - non-motor (NM) - (TVPS): There are two levels of this test.  Standard  and Upper Level (UL).  Both tests assesses seven areas of visual perception not requiring motor responses. Visual discrimination, visual memory, visual spatial relationships, visual form consistency, visual sequential memory, visual figure ground and visual closure.
    The Upper level of the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor) - (TVPS-UL), used for students ages 12 to 18 years.  There are seven areas of visual perception: 1. Visual Discrimination, 2. Visual-Spatial Relationships, 3. Visual Form Constancy, 4. Visual Sequential Memory, 5. Visual Memory, 6. Visual Closure and 7. Visual Figure-Ground.  Testing time is 10 to 20 minutes.
    Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor) - Lower levelTVPS, used for Ages 4 Through 13 Years. Testing Time and seven subtests are the same.  Publisher:
    Pro-Ed, 1999

    Developmental Test of Visual Perception–Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A): A comprehensive measure of visual perception that reliably differentiates visual-perceptual problems from visual-motor integration deficit.

    Ages: 11 through 74, 11 months, Testing Time: 25 minutes, Administration: Individual

    There are six subtests that measure different but interrelated visual-perceptual and visual-motor abilities.

    1. Copying: Individuals are shown a simple figure and asked to draw it on a piece of paper. The figure serves as a model for the drawing.
    2. Figure-Ground: Individuals are shown stimulus figures and asked to find as many of the figures as they can on a page where the figures are hidden in a complex, confusing background.
    3. Visual-Motor Search: The individual is shown a page covered in numbered circles, randomly arranged on the page. The individual connects the circles with a line, in numerical sequence, as quickly as possible.
    4. Visual Closure: Individuals are shown a stimulus figure and asked to select the exact figure from a series of figures that have been incompletely drawn.
    5. Visual-Motor Speed: Individuals are shown (a) four different geometric designs, two of which have special marks in them, and (b) a page filled completely with the four designs, none of which have marks in them.
    6. Form Constancy: Individuals are shown a stimulus figure and asked to find it in a series of figures. In the series, the targeted figure will have a different size, position, and/or shade, and it may be hidden in a distracting background.

    Composite Scores or Indexes - The most reliable scores for the DTVP-A are the indexes. These scores are found by adding the standard scores of the subtests that comprise a composite and converting the sum to an index.

    1. General Visual-Perceptual Index: The GVPI is the best measure of what the majority of people mean when they say "visual perception." Data from six subtests, each of which measures a different type of visual perception in a different manner, contribute to the GVPI. When GVPIs are below 90, examiners need to pay more attention to the clinically important indexes- the Motor-Reduced Visual Perceptual Index (MRPI) and the Visual-Motor Integration Index (VMII). Examination of these indexes may help explain the causes for low GVPIs.
    2. Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index: Of all of the DTVP-A indexes, the MRPI is the "purest" and most direct measure of visual perception in that only minimal motor skills (e.g., pointing) are required to show perceptual competence. This index is formed by combining the standard scores from the Figure-Ground, Visual Closure, and Form Constancy Subtests.
    3. Visual-Motor Integration Index: To do well on this composite, individuals must perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks. Low scores do not necessarily indicate poor visual perception; they may mean that the individuals have awkward hand movements or that they have difficulty coordinating hand-to-eye movements. This index is formed by combining the standard scores of the Copying, Visual-Motor Search, and Visual-Motor Speed Subtests.
    Publisher: Pro-Ed, 2002 


    Motor Free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT)- An individually administered test designed to assess overall visual perceptual ability. Perceptual tasks include spatial relationships, visual discrimination, figure-ground, visual closure, and visual memory. Performance in these areas provides a single score that represents the individual's general visual perceptual ability. Ages: 4 - 95, MVPT-3 includes additional test items that permit the assessment of visual perception in adults and adolescents.

    Test of Visual Motor Skills (TVMS) - This test assesses visual motor integration skills.  Helps assess the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities.  Two forms the short and long.  Short form is for ages 2 - 8 years old and full form: Ages 2-18 years old.  Each test takes as little as 5 mins (Motor Coordination) and as much as 15 mins. (Visual Perceptual).

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    PreSchool Visual Motor Integration Assessment (PVMIA) This test specifically devoted to the perceptual abilities of the preschooler. The PVMIA was developed to identify visual motor integration deficits of children 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 years old.
    Specific skills addressed: perception of position in space, awareness of spatial relationships, color and shape discrimination, matching two attributes simultaneously, and the ability to reproduce what is seen and what is interpreted.
    Consists of 2 subtests: a Drawing subtest (8 items), which examines the ability to recognize and reproduce lines and shapes on paper, and a Block Patterns subtest (25 items), which examines the abilities to recognize color and shape using three-dimensional blocks and to recognize and reproduce patterns created by assembling the same blocks. The drawings used in the Drawing subtest are novel to children and developmental in nature. The Block Pattern Subtest uses parquetry blocks that fit small hands rather than the one inch cubes typically used in other tests. The test items are presented in order of increasing difficulty. In addition, there are two Behavioral Observation Checklists which assist in the interpretation of the test results. Raw scores are converted to Standard Scores and Percentile Ranges for each of the Subtests and for the Total Test.  It can be administered in approximately 20 minutes and scored in approximately 25-30 minutes.

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    Beery-Buktenica Development Test of Visual Motor Integration (Beery VMI) - Helps assess the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities. The Short Format and Full Format tests present drawings of geometric forms arranged in order of increasing difficulty that the individual is asked to copy. The Short Format is often used with children ages 2-8 years.  Full Form with children 2-18 years old.  Publisher: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.(PAR)

    Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) - This test assesses gross motor and fine motor skills.  Assesses the motor proficiency of able-bodied students, as well as students with serious motor dysfunctions and developmental handicaps. The test can also be useful in developing and evaluating motor training programs.  For ages 4 years - 21 years.  Takes 45-60 minutes, Short Form: 15-20 minutes.  The test does provide scores reported by age based standard Scores, percentile ranks, and stanines.

    Publisher: Pearson Publishing.

    Eight subtests assess:

        Fine Motor Precision—7 items (e.g., cutting out a circle, connecting dots)
        Fine Motor Integration—8 items (e.g., copying a star, copying a square)
        Manual Dexterity—5 items (e.g., transferring pennies, sorting cards, stringing blocks)
        Bilateral Coordination—7 items (e.g., tapping foot and finger, jumping jacks)
        Balance—9 items (e.g., walking forward on a line, standing on one leg on a balance beam)
        Running Speed and Agility—5 items (e.g., shuttle run, one-legged side hop)
        Upper-Limb Coordination—7 items (e.g., throwing a ball at a target, catching a tossed ball)
        Strength—5 items (e.g., standing long jump, sit-ups)

    These composites are:

    • Fine Manual Control
    • Manual Coordination
    • Body Coordination
    • Strength and Agility
    • Total Motor Composite

    To view a sample of the BOT Report for 7th grader:  Download Standard Report Sample 

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    Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised (THS-R) - This is an un-timed standardized assessment of handwriting skills, both manuscript and cursive. It can be used with any of the popular handwriting programs. It is newly revised, January, 2007. The changes to the new edition include: norms are extended through age 18 (manuscript and cursive), nationally stratified norms, a simplified scoring procedure, handwriting exemplars that reflect current styles including D'Nealian, Handwriting Without Tears, Universal and Zaner-Bloser.  For children ages 5 - age 18, 11 months.

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    WOLD Sentence Copying Test - This test evaluates the handwriting of students in grades 2 through 8 when copying in print or manuscript.  The test involves copying a sentence with 110 letters on the test paper while being timed.  This assess a mixed of motor visual perceptual skills along with cognitive skills.  The student may print or use cursive.  Timing begins as so as they starts to write.
    This is an example of the the sentence that is presented on the paper:

            Four men and a jolly boy came out of

            the black and pink house quickly to see

            the bright violet sun, but the sun was

            hidden behind a cloud

    The student is to write the sentence carefully, but as fast as they can as it is a timed test.  Maximum time allowed is 3 minutes.

    Observe the pencil grip posture, sub-vocalization loses place, copying style letter/word reversal.

    The time is recorded in minutes and seconds.  Letters copied per minute can then be calculated with Grade Equivalents (GE).

    The test evaluates Rate of Handwriting, Posture, Number of Fixations, Spacing, Vocalization, Concentration, Formation, and Frustration Level. 

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    Sensory Integration (SI)

    Sensory Profile - Is comprised of a parent/caregiver and teacher questionnaire that is used to identify typical performance, probable difference or definite difference in a child's behavioral responses to sensory information in their environment.  For Ages 3 to 10 years process sensory information in everyday situations. You can also profile the sensory system's effect on functional performance.  Nine factor groupings characterize children by their responsiveness to sensory input including, Sensory seeking, Emotional reactive, Low endurance/tone, Oral sensory sensitivity, Inattention/distractibility, Poor registration, Sensory sensitivity, Sedentary, and Fine motor/perceptual.  Publisher: Harcourt or  www.sensoryprofile.com

    Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT): measures aspects of sensory processing and praxis, the ability to form an idea, plan the action and execute it. This test evaluates specifically delineate processing challenges which may be contributing to difficulties in learning or behavior. The SIPT measures visual, tactile, and kinesthetic perception as well as motor performance. A child's performance on each of these tests is compared with the average performance of other children in his or her age group. In addition to these tests, clinical observations are made of muscle tone, postural responses, coordination and hand skill development.  It is composed of 17 brief tests and provides standardized scores.  Must be given by OT who is SIPT certified.  The cost runs between $800-1500.

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    Phycial Therapy (PT)

    Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) - This test assesses gross motor and fine motor skills. Assesses the motor proficiency of able-bodied students, as well as students with serious motor dysfunctions and developmental handicaps. The test can also be useful in developing and evaluating motor training programs. For ages 4 years - 21 years. Takes 45-60 minutes, Short Form: 15-20 minutes. The test does provide scores reported by age based standard Scores, percentile ranks, and stanines. (also used by OT Evaluations).

    The Test of Gross Motor Development – 2 (TGMD-2) is a standardized test that measures gross motor abilities that develop early in life, ages 3 through age 10 years.   The test is used  to:          

    a) identify children who are significantly behind their peers in gross   motor skill development,

    b)  plan an instructional program in gross motor skill development,

    c)  assess individual progress in gross motor skill development,

    d)  evaluate the success of the gross motor program, and

    e)  serve as a measurement instrument in research involving gross motor development. 

    The test takes 15-20 minutes to administer. Set up and clean-up may take an adthirdnal 10 minutes. There is some measuring of distances.  Usually only one session is required to get through the test, but to provide favorable circumstances so that the evaluation is optimal, several sessions may be needed for certain children.

    The TGMD-2 looks at 12 gross motor skills divided into two subtests:

    1) Locomotor (run, hop, gallop, leap, horizontal jump, and slide)

    2) Object Control (ball skills such as striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, catch, kick, overhand throw, and underhand roll).

    A PT evaluation includes clinical observation and parent interview.

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    Social Skills

    Antisocial-aggressive, and Demanding-disruptive.

    Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) - A nationally standardized series of questionnaires that obtain information on the social behaviors of children and adolescents from teachers, parents, and the students themselves.  Assess children who have problems with behavior and interpersonal skills.  Detect the problems behind shyness, trouble
    initiating conversation, and difficulty making friends.   Select behaviors for treatment and assist in planning intervention.

    Ages: 3-18; A Student Self Report can be used in Grades 3-12. 
    Administration Time: 10-25 minutes for each questionnaire.
    Scores: Social Skills, Problem Behaviors, and Academic
    Competence scales—Standard scores and percentile ranks; Scales and subscales—Behavior Levels (fewer, average, and more); Items—Frequency and Importance ratings point to behaviors that may require intervention. 
    Publisher: Parson

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    Walker-McConnell Scale - WMS (K-6 / 7-12) -  Has two versions:
    ELEMENTARY VERSION is appropriate for use with students in grades K-6. It consists of three, analytically derived, sub-scales (Teacher-Preferred Social Behavior, Peer-Preferred Social Behavior, and School Adjustment) totaling 43 items across the three sub-scales. The Scale relies on teacher ratings of the frequency with which social skills are estimated to occur for each student rated. The 43 items of the Elementary Scale typically require no more than 10 minutes to complete for each student.

    ADOLESCENT VERSION is appropriate for use with students in grades 7-12. It contains four, analytically derived, sub-scales (Self Control, Peer Relations, School Adjustment, and Empathy) totaling 53 items across the four sub-scales. The Scale relies on teacher ratings of the frequency with which social skills are estimated to occur for each student rated. The 53 items of the Adolescent Scale typically require no more than 10 minutes to complete for each student.

    Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) - Used from birth to adulthood in their personal and social functioning. Following Edgar Doll's original conceptualization of adaptive behavior as multidimensional in structure and his measurement of the behaviors by areas, the VABS is organized around four Behavior Domains: Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization, and Motor Skills.  The assessment has 13 scores.

    Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) -  comprehensive, norm-referenced assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior.  It may be administered in a structured interview or by a checklist procedure.  There are 33 items give users a broader measure of the adaptive behavior skills required in everyday living. Simplified scoring: Age-equivalent scoring tables are included in the response booklets for each subscale, allowing examiners to get immediate developmental information.

    CELF-Pragmatics subtest

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    Executive Functioning:

    Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System™ (D–KEFS) - This is the Executive function test is used by Neuropsychologist  or psychologist to evaluate executive function skills.   This test can be given to anyone ages 8 to 89 Years old.    These tests assess key components of executive functions within verbal and spatial modalities. Comprehensively assess with 9 tests, the key components of executive functions believed to be mediated primarily by the frontal lobe. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System'" (D-KEFS) is the first nationally standardized set of tests to evaluate higher-level cognitive functions in both children and adults. The tests assess vital executive functions such as flexibility of thinking, inhibition, problem solving, planning, impulse control, concept formation, abstract thinking, and creativity in both verbal and spatial modalities. D-KEFS' nine stand-alone tests evaluate the following executive-function domains.


    9 Catalogues

    View Powerpoint presentation (PPT) describing the subtests.

    Key Executive Functions Assessed

    Sorting Test (ST)
    Problem-solving, verbal and spatial concept formation, flexibility of thinking on a conceptual task.  Assesses the individual's ability to initiation, creativity in forming responses, cognitive flexibility, and transfer of conceptual knowledge into behavior that is goal directed (formerly called the California Sorting Test).
    Trail Making Tests (TMT) Flexibility of thinking on a visual-motor task.  These subtests indicates an ability to execute and modify a plan of action.  They asses a higher level processes.  The five subtests are: Visual Scanning, Visual Sequencing, Number Sequencing, Letter Sequencing, Number-Letter Switching and Motor speed.
    Verbal Fluency Tests (VFT) 

    Fluent productivity in the verbal domain.  Assess the individual's ability to produce verbal responses in accordance with a set of rules within one minute.  The three subtests are: Letter Fluency, Category Fluency, and Category-Switching.

    Design Fluency Tests (DFT)    Fluent productivity in the spatial domain.  Requires the production of as many different designs using a series of dots and rules as a guide within a time period.  The skills required for these tasks include: Initiation of problem solving behaviors, fluency in generating visual designs, creativity and simultaneous processing by drawing and observing the rules at the same time. The three subtests are: Condition 1: Filled Dots, Condition 2: Empty Dots, Condition 3: Switching. 
    Color-Word Interference Tests (CWIT)  Verbal inhibition, simultaneous processing and cognitive flexibility.  Inhibit the natural response and exert mental flexibility to switch sets of rules for response as necessary.  The four subtests are Condition 1: Basic Color Naming, Condition 2: Word Reading, Condition 3: Inhibition and Condition 4: Inhibition/Switching). 
    Tower Test (TT)     

    Planning and reasoning in the spatial modality, impulsivity - Visual attention, visual-spatial skills, spatial planning, rule learning, inhibition and the establishment and maintenance of cognitive set.

    Twenty (20) Questions Test (TQT)

    Logical thinking, hypothesis testing and deduction.  An adaptation of a popular game played by children and adults, this test assesses the ability to identify the various categories and subcategories represented. Presented with a stimulus page depicting pictures of 30 common objects, and tries to ask the fewest number of yes/no questions in order to identify the unknown target object.

    Word Context Test (WCT) Verbal modality and assesses deductive reasoning, integration of multiple bits of information, hypothesis testing, and flexibility in thinking.
    Proverb Test (PT) Metaphorical thinking; generating versus comprehending abstract thought.  The ability to form novel verbal abstractions (formerly called the California Proverb Test).
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    Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

    Purpose: Assess impairment of executive function
    For: Ages 5 - 18 years
    Administration: Individual, 86 items
    Time: 10-15 minutes to administer; 15-20 minutes to score by hand, software available for scoring and interpretation.

    The BRIEF consists of two rating forms: a parent questionnaire and a teacher questionnaire, (84 questions) are designed to assess executive functioning in the home and school environments.

    BRIEF-SR, Self-Report Version™ is designed to assess children's and adolescents', for age 13 - 18 views of their own executive functions, or self-regulation, in their everyday environment.

    BRIEF Preschool (Ages 3-5 years)
    BRIEF Self-Report (Ages 13-18 years)
    BRIEF Adult (Ages 18-90 years)
    BRIEF Software (Scoring & Reporting)

    Measures two catalogues: Behavioral Regulation skills and Metacognitive Skills.

    Behavioral Regulation that has three subtests: Inhibit:responseasures control of impulses; stop behavior.  Shift: Move freely from one activity / situation to another; transition; problem-solve flexibly and Emotional control: Measures modulate emotional responses appropriately.

    Metacognition that has five subtests: Initiate: Begin activity, generate ideas.  Working Memory: hold information in mind for purpose of completing a task.  Plan/Organize: Anticipate future events, set goals, develop steps, and grasp main ideas.  Organize Material: The management of academic materials and Monitor: Check work; assess own performance.

    Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR)

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      Type of Scores

      These tests consists of a number of mandatory and optional  subtests.  The results obtained by the child on these different subtests are combined into composite or cluster scores.   If we rely on composite, cluster scores, or averaging these scores, without examining the child's scores on the individual subtests, we can easily overlook obvious deficiencies and significant strengths.  Relying on composite, cluster scores, or averaging can lead to faulty educational decision-making, having tragic consequences for children.  To advocate effectively, parents must obtain all of the subtest scores (SS) on the tests that have been administered to your child.

      Standard Score (SS) Compares the student's performance with that of other children at the same age or grade level.  For reference, Standard Score of 85-115 fall within normal range.  Standard score of 84 or lower fall below the normal range and scores of 116 or higher fall above normal range.

      Stanine Score like the Standard score, reflects the student's performance compared with that of students in the age range on which the given test was normed.  For reference, a stanine of 7 is above average, a stanine of 5 is average and a stanine of 3 is below average  (see the 'detailed bell curve' at bottom page).

      The Percentile (PR or %) Score indicates the student's performance on given test relative to the other children the same age on who the test was normed.  A score of 50% or higher is above normal range.  Percentiles are not the same as percent correct!  Percentile is an age-based or grade-based score indicating the percent of the norm group of students tested who scored less than the student. A 85th percentile means that 85 percent of students tested scored lower than the subject, not that the student received 85% of the questions correct.  Percentile scores are correlated to saboutrd score or IQ scores: 75th percentile is the same as standard score or IQ score of 110 (see the 'detailed bell curve' at bottom page).   For tests that use a large populations (nationally normed), percentiles are statically a better way to compare one child to his age or grade peers.

      It is not recommend to use of grade & age equivalents scores - they are ordinal measures, terribly inaccurate, they promote inaccurate typological thinking and they're grossly inaccurate for measuring growth. Parents like them, but they can lead to erroneous conceptions.  School curriculum varies and it makes it difficult to determine appropriate grade level.

      The Grade Equivalent (GE) score reflects the approximate grade level at which the student is performing in a given skill.  The whole number represents the grade, and the decimal number represents the month within that grade.  For example, 4-5 or 4.5 means fourth grade, fifth month. So a student scoring 4.5 scored about the same as the typical score of a fourth graders tested with the same test in January or early February (-5 or.5).  AGE of 2.5 indicates that the student's raw score for the test was as the average (median) raw score for the group of students in the fifth month of second grade on whom the test was normed.

      The Age Equivalent (AE) score reflects the approximate age at which the student is performing in a given skill.   The whole number represents the age, and the decimal number represents the additional months. For example, 6-5 or 6.5 means age six, and five months. So a student scoring 6.5 scored about the same as information score of a six year old tested with the same test in January or early February (-5 or.5).  A 'AE' of 9.5 indicates that the student's raw score for the test was as the average (median) raw score for the group of students age nine and five months on whom the test was normed.

      Read Questions & Answers on "Age vs grade equivalent scores", click here

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    Related Resources

    Educational Testing is the the major area of testing it will serve as a baseline against which future progress can be measured.  There are two types of educational testing Achievement testing and Diagnostic testing.

      For information about the proper tests to use with: Dyslexic and Learning Disabled students; students with Dysgraphia, please click here to visit our Which Test webpage. for list of recommended tests.

      Resources used for this page came from the following sources:

      The Test company catalogs and websites, Landmark School and other resources stated on this page.

      The book, "The Special Educator's Comprehensive Guide to 301 Diagnostic Tests"
      Roger Ph.D. Pierangelo, George Psy.D. Giuliani (2006)
       check out our Recommend Book page.

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    Some of the most frequently administered test by our schools are:



    One of our original webpages, December, 2003, by Melody Orfei
    Webpage last modified on March 23, 2015 - V51, by Melody Orfei