Specialize Educational Methods

Page Index:
Reading Programs: General,  Explicitly taught
Components of Reading
   Phonemic Awareness Programs (letter and vowels sounds)
   Phonics (Decoding meaning sounding out words), Dyslexic References
   Fluency (reading rate)
  Vocabulary (words understood)
   Comprehension (meaning)
Training
Articles

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Reading Programs

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, Kindergarten through Grade 3

The Partnership for Reading: National Institute for Literacy; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and U.S. Department of Education, have a easy to read booklet you can read on-line, print out or order a copy:

This booklet  summarizes for teachers what researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. It describes the findings of the National Reading Panel Report and provides analysis and discussion in five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness; phonics; fluency; vocabulary; and text comprehension. Each section suggests implications for classroom instruction as well as other information.

Research & Reports
With the passage of the No Child Left Behind act and other developments, the education community is routinely using research to guide decisions about reading instruction.

As part of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, and the “Reading First” Initiative (2001), 34
The Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR), has a table "Rating of Reading programs", rates each program based on the five critical components areas of reading.

Components of Reading

  1. Phonemic Awareness
  2. Phonics
  3. Fluency
  4. Vocabulary
  5. Comprehension strategies

National Institute for Literacy - Reading Recommendations

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Hierarchical set of skills of reading:

 
1. Awareness of print -  lowest level -
2. Recognizing letter shapes and names
3. Know that sounds are represented by letters
4. Know that words come apart into small sounds / syllables
5. Blend sounds together to form words
6. Process larger groups of letters and words
7. Develop fluency and automaticity
8. Develop reading comprehension  -  highest level -

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Phonemic Awareness Programs

Phonemic Awareness 
(Short  definition: Hearing, identifying and manipulating sounds in spoken words.)

Involves the explicit awareness of the individual phonemes (sounds) and the manipulation of these individual sounds.  It involves such task as rhyming, segmenting sounds, blending sounds, and manipulating sounds (deleting and substituting sounds); It's metalinguistic.  Children learn how to think about the sound structure of language and are given strategies to both process and manipulate the sound structure in order to learn to read and spell.

Phonemic Awareness can be tested 3 areas that are measured: 1. sound comparison, 2. segmentation and 3. blending.

Phonological Awareness
Phonological Awareness is a much broader term that includes Phonemic Awareness.
In addition to phonemes, phonological awareness activities can involve work with rhymes, words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.

It includes identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes (as well as phonemes).
It also encompasses awareness of other aspects of sound, such as rhyming, alliteration, and intonation.
Phonemic awareness is a subcategory of phonological awareness.

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The Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing™ (LiPS™) Program
(formerly called the ADD Program, Auditory Discrimination in Depth)
Students become aware of the mouth actions which produce speech sounds so they can feel sounds within words. 
The LiPs program teaches phonemic awareness and stresses auditory conceptualization much more in-depth than OG or Wilson.   

Telian Learning Concepts
The Telian program teaches phonemic awareness and phonics.
Nancy Alemian Telian
P.O. Box 453
Stoughton, MA 02072
781-344-0444 (phone/fax)
www.readingwithtlc.com

Wisnia-Kapp Reading Programs, Inc. (WKRP)
Judith Wisnia and Associates, Inc.
111 South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 272-2100
http://www.jwisnia.com/wpcms/

Specialized Program Individualizing Reading Excellence (SPIRE) 
S.P.I.R.E. is a Multisensory, sequential, phonetic to reading approach for grades Pre-K - 8.
Students hear, see, say, touch, and write letters, sounds, syllables, words and sentences.  Created by Sheila Clark-Edmands.

Progress Learning, Inc.
P.O. Box 545
Kennebunk, ME  04043
(207) 985-3878


Fast ForWord
The Fast ForWord Family of Programs™
Has a computer based training programs to improve language skills for students with language-learning disabilities.  The four key areas of learning skills are memory, attention, processing rate and sequencing.  Increase processing efficiency and improve reading skills such as sound-letter associations, phonological awareness, word recognition, knowledge of language conventions, vocabulary and comprehension.

Scientific Learning
300 Frank Ogawa Plaza, Suite 600,
Oakland, CA
www.fastforword.com

To find a list of local providers visit the Scientific Learning website.

Articles from LD On-line: about Phonemic Awareness

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Phonics

Means learning about different sounds and letter combinations and using the sounds and letter combinations to decode words.
Phonics instruction teaches children to use these relationships to read and write words.


Phonics is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (all of the letters and letter combinations that represent a phoneme, e.g. f, ph, and gh), the letters that represent those sounds in written language. If children are to benefit from phonics instruction, they need phonemic awareness.

For information about systematic, explicit taught phonics reading methods:

Orton-Gillingham (OG)
 

The Orton-Gillingham approach is language-based, multisensory, structured, sequential, cumulative, cognitive, and flexible. Its breadth, perspective, and flexibility prompt use of the term approach instead of method.  The Orton-Gillingham approach is appropriate for teaching individuals, small groups, and classrooms.  (See the Academy website for more information.)

The Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators
PO Box 234
Amenia, New York 12501-0234
Telephone: (845) 373-8919
Fax: (845) 373-8925
E-Mail info@ortonacademy.org
www.ortonacademy.org

Project Read©/Language Circle©

Project Read©/Language Circle© is a research based mainstream language arts program for students who need a systematic learning experience with direct teaching of concepts and skills through multisensory techniques.  Project Read© has five curriculum strands:
1. Phonology, 2. Linguistics, 3. Reading Comprehension – Report Form, 4. ·Reading Comprehension – Story Form, 5. Written Expression.
(See the Project Read website  for more information.)

P.O. Box 20631
Bloomington, MN  55420
(800) 450-0343
www.projectread.com

Wilson Language Training Corporation

The Wilson Reading System is a research-based reading program. It is a complete curriculum for teaching decoding and encoding (spelling) beginning with phoneme segmentation.  The Wilson program has twelve steps. Steps One and Two emphasize phonemic segmentation skills (the ability to separate the sounds in a word) and blending the sounds together again.  (See the Wilson web site for more information.).

Wilson Fundations for K-3 is a phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics and spelling program for the general education classroom.
Fundations is based upon the Wilson Reading System® principles and serves as a prevention program to help reduce reading and spelling failure.

Wilson Reading System
(Based on Orton-Gillingham (OG) method)
47 Old Webster Road
Oxford, MA 01540
508-368-2399

info@WilsonLanguage.com

www.WilsonLanguage.com
www.Fundations.com


Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes™  (LBLP)
 

Learning processes programs for learning disabled.  Addressing phonemic awareness for reading, and spelling.  Comprehension, math, drawing and etc.  Diagnostic testing and tutoring.  They have four main programs: LiPS™ Program , Seeing Stars® , The On Cloud Nine™ Math and  Visualizing and Verbalizing® for Language Comprehension and Thinking (V/V™) , they are listed on this web page.

Telian Learning Concepts (TLC)
The Telian program teaches phonemic awareness and phonics.
by Nancy Alemian Telian
P.O. Box 453
Stoughton, MA 02072
781-344-0444 (phone/fax)
www.readingwithtlc.com

Wisnia-Kapp Reading Programs, Inc. (WKRP)
Judith Wisnia and Associates, Inc.
111 South Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803
(781) 272-2100
www.home.comcast.net/~jwisnia18/wkrp/
 

References:

Article on: Multisensory Structured Language Programs: Content & Principles of Instruction (1995)

Book on Dyslexic: Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Overcoming Reading Problems at Any Level
by Dr. Sally Shaywitz (2003)

Video on Dyslexic:  Demystifying Dyslexia Video, explains dyslexia, it shows research based programs in action, it overviews Dr. Sally Shawitz's research, there is an interviews with Dr. Louis Moats,  administrator and special educators from the Gow school (school in NY for Dyslexic students) and several others.

Articles from LD On-line: Reading and Dyslexia

Rating of Reading programs, by Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) table summary.

 

 

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Reading Fluency

Is the ability to read with speed, accuracy, and proper expression.

Read Naturally program
750 S. Plaza Drive #100
Saint Paul, MN 55120

(651) 452-4085
(800) 788-4085
info@readnaturally.com

Great Leaps
Diarmuid, Inc.
P.O. Box 357580 
Gainesville, FL 32635
(877) GRLEAPS (475-3277)
info@greatleaps.com

Wilson Fluency Program
(This is a supplemental fluency program for students in early grades who are learning to read and older students who are struggling with decoding.) 
Wilson Language Training Corp.
47 Old Webster Road
Oxford, MA 01540
508-368-2399
info@WilsonLanguage.com


TicTac Read & Match
(Fluency worksheets - to be done orally)
LinguiSystems, Inc.
3100 4th Avenue
East Moline, IL 61244
309-755-2300
800-PRO IDEA (800-776-4332)
service@linguisystems.com

 

Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility
David J. Chard, University of Texas at Austin and Jean Osborn, Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois
(1999)

 

Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, And How? PDF file
By Roxanne F. Hudson, Holly B. Lane and Paige C. Pullen

 

Articles from LD On-line: about Reading Fluency

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Vocabulary

The sum of words used by, understood by, or at the command of a particular person or group.  Reading increases a student's vocabulary.

 
Receptive Vocabulary: Requires a reader to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening.
Reading vocabulary - the words we need to know to understand what we read.
Listening vocabulary - the words we need to know to understand what we hear.
Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning.
Speaking vocabulary - the words we use when we speak.
Writing vocabulary - the words we use in writing (students may avoid using words they do not know how to spell).


Student workbooks:
Wordly Wise® 3000™ 2nd Edition
by Kenneth Hodkinson, Sandra Adams, Cheryl Dressler
Grades K–12
Explicit, systematic, and direct vocabulary instruction

Fast ForWord
The Fast ForWord Family of Programs™
Has a computer based training programs to improve language skills for students with language-learning disabilities.  The four key areas of learning skills are memory, attention, processing rate and sequencing.  Increase processing efficiency and improve reading skills such as sound-letter associations, phonological awareness, word recognition, knowledge of language conventions, vocabulary and comprehension.

Scientific Learning
300 Frank Ogawa Plaza, Suite 600,
Oakland, CA
www.fastforword.com

To find a list of local providers visit the Scientific Learning website.  


Articles:
A Review of the Current Research on Vocabulary Instruction

Article from LD On-line: Teaching Vocabulary

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Reading Comprehension (meaning)

Visualizing and Verbalizing® for Language Comprehension and Thinking (V/V™)
by Nanci Bell 
The program applies concept imagery to reading comprehension, oral language comprehension, following directions, higher order thinking skills, expressive language and writing.

Lindamood-Bell™
108 Pleasant Street
Arlington, MA
(781) 643-4567
www.lblp.com
 

Project Read©/Language Circle©

Project Read©/Language Circle© is a research based mainstream language arts program for students who need a systematic learning experience with direct teaching of concepts and skills through multisensory techniques.  Project Read© has five curriculum strands:
1. Phonology, 2. Linguistics, 3. Reading Comprehension – Report Form, 4. ·Reading Comprehension – Story Form, 5. Written Expression.
(See the Project Read website for more information.)

P.O. Box 20631
Bloomington, MN  55420
(800) 450-0343
www.projectread.com

IDEACHAIN program
by Jane Wilkinson

The Idea Chain program teaches an individual to become more efficient at mental imaging so they can process information more efficiently and understand as they read.  Their slogan is "Read - Remember - Relate".

MindPrime, Inc.
4547 Baylor Camp Road
Crawford, TX  76638
(254) 848-2087

Story Grammar Marker(R)
by Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed, CCC-SLP and Judy K. Montgomery, PhD, CCC-SLP
The Story Grammar Marker® is a proactive tool that teaches comprehension and written expression across all curriculums.
The process of using The Marker connects language development to literacy. 
It is use to map out, identify and analyze significant components of narrative text (e.g., fiction, biographies, historical accounts)

MindWing Concepts
Springfield Enterprise Center
One Federal Street, Building #101-R
Springfield, MA 01105-1222
(413) 734-7476
(888) 228-9746

Fast ForWord
The Fast ForWord Family of Programs™
Has a computer based training programs to improve language skills for students with language-learning disabilities.  The four key areas of learning skills are memory, attention, processing rate and sequencing.  Increase processing efficiency and improve reading skills such as sound-letter associations, phonological awareness, word recognition, knowledge of language conventions, vocabulary and comprehension.

Scientific Learning
300 Frank Ogawa Plaza, Suite 600
Oakland, CA

www.fastforword.com

To find a list of local providers visit the Scientific Learning website.   
  

 

Books about reading comprehension:

Mosaic of Thought
by Ellin Keane and Susan Zimmerman
 (It is recommend that you get the latest edition of this book because she has updated her research and changed some of her thinking.)

I Read it, But I don't Get It
by Cris Tovani
(this book is along the same lines of Mosaic of Thought).

Strategies that Work
by Stephanie Harvey

These three books are based on research done on children who are successful reading, studying what they do correctly,
(instead of using research done with struggling readers).  They are parent friendly and the knowledge can be applied to reading with your children.

Article: Assessment of Reading Comprehension
LD On-line: Articles about Reading Comprehension

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Where can parents and teacher go for training in these reading programs:

Get training from the creator for reading programs (i.e. Wilson, LMB, WKRP, etc.)
or from Training Centers:
 

Reading Disabilities Unit
Massachusetts General Hospital
Wang Ambulatory Care Center, Suite 737
Boston, MA  02114
617-726-2764
http://www.massgeneral.org/pcs/Heal_Read/heal_read_index.asp

Garside Institute for Teacher Training (GIFTT)
Carroll School
Baker Bridge Road
Lincoln, MA  01773
(781) 259-8342
www.carrollschool.org/giftt.html

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Articles about reading disabilities:

Catch Them Before They Fall - Identification and Assessment to Prevent Reading Failure in Young Children
By Joseph K. Torgesen, American Educator, Spring/Summer 1998

Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process
By G. Reid Lyon, LDA Newsbriefs, Learning Disabilities Association of America (2000)

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One of our original web pages, created September 10, 2002, by Melody Orfei
Web page last modified on December 28, 2016 - V24, by Melody Orfei
mel3sons@gmail.com